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Atif Mehmood

NIL

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Hilal English

Comparative Analysis of IQ, EQ, SQ and AQ

June 2024

Human cognitive abilities, shaped by external factors, influence interactions at individual and societal levels, with IQ, EQ, SQ, and AQ providing insights into cognition, emotional intelligence, social skills, and resilience, crucial for navigating life's challenges successfully.



Man is blessed with unique cerebral skills characterized by complex information processing, interpretation, and judgment cycles. However, these skills vary from person to person due to numerous factors to which they are exposed, which define their relationship with the outside world. Expanding this view to the levels of society, and nations helps us understand and predict their behaviors. Furthermore, pertinent lessons can also be drawn for the well-being of individuals affected by such imbalances. To this end, different techniques have been devised to measure an individual's intellectual abilities. The intelligence quotient (IQ) has traditionally been used for this purpose. However, this technique is narrowly focused on academic abilities and lacks consideration of certain psychological and external factors. Psychologists have since identified additional variants, enabling a more comprehensive view of human cognitive processes. Notable among these are the Emotional Quotient (EQ), Social Quotient (SQ), and Adversity Quotient (AQ). All of these now form the basis of research in modern psychology.


These tests measure a person's intellectual abilities relative to their age group. The average IQ score is 100, with scores above or below this average indicating above or below-average intelligence. About 68 percent of the world's population has IQs between 85 and 115, and about 2 percent have IQs of 130 or above, or 70 or below. College students typically have an IQ range of 112-120. Gifted individuals most commonly have IQs above 130, while those with intellectual disabilities have IQs below 70. IQ is calculated using the formula (mental age/chronological age) x 100, where mental age is determined by online or written intelligence tests.


Insight into IQ, EQ, SQ, and AQ
Intelligence Quotient. Psychologist Alfred Binet introduced the concept of IQ in the early 20th century. He pioneered intelligence tests to identify children in France who needed additional educational support. IQ is the numerical standard of individual cognitive abilities and intellectual potential. It is intended to estimate a person's general intelligence and capacity to acquire knowledge, think abstractly, reason logically, and solve problems. This is assessed through a series of standard tasks or questions that evaluate various cognitive domains, including verbal comprehension, mathematical reasoning, logical thinking, spatial awareness, and perceptual speed.
These tests measure a person's intellectual abilities relative to their age group. The average IQ score is 100, with scores above or below this average indicating above or below-average intelligence. About 68 percent of the world's population has IQs between 85 and 115, and about 2 percent have IQs of 130 or above, or 70 or below. College students typically have an IQ range of 112-120. Gifted individuals most commonly have IQs above 130, while those with intellectual disabilities have IQs below 70. IQ is calculated using the formula (mental age/chronological age) x 100, where mental age is determined by online or written intelligence tests.
Emotional Quotient. EQ refers to a person's ability to understand, manage, and express emotions, as well as perceive and respond to the emotions of others. It measures one's emotional intelligence, crucial in personal relationships, social interactions, and professional success. Self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, motivation, and social skills are the essential components of emotional quotient. A team can have everything going for it–the brightest and most qualified people, access to resources, a clear mission–but still fail because it lacks group emotional intelligence.
Social Quotient (SQ). The term "Social Intelligence" was introduced by psychologist Edward Thorndike in 1920. However, measuring and quantifying social skills gained more attention in recent years as the importance of interpersonal competencies became increasingly recognized. SQ is similar to the well-known IQ and EQ but specifically focuses on a person's social skills and abilities. SQ measures an individual's capacity to interact effectively with others, build and maintain relationships, and navigate social situations tactfully and with empathy. SQ encompasses a range of skills and traits including communication, empathy, interpersonal skills, social awareness, leadership, and networking, but it is not limited to these.
Adversity Quotient. It was coined by Paul Stoltz in 1997 in his book “Adversity Quotient: Turning Obstacles into Opportunities.” AQ is a person's ability to manage difficulties and transform obstacles into opportunities. It is one of the probable indicators of a person's success in life. It is also primarily used to predict attitude, mental stress, perseverance, learning, and response to environmental change. We don’t develop courage by being happy every day. We develop it by surviving difficult times and challenging adversity.


The term "Social Intelligence" was introduced by psychologist Edward Thorndike in 1920. However, measuring and quantifying social skills gained more attention in recent years as the importance of interpersonal competencies became increasingly recognized. SQ is similar to the well-known IQ and EQ but specifically focuses on a person's social skills and abilities. SQ measures an individual's capacity to interact effectively with others, build and maintain relationships, and navigate social situations tactfully and with empathy. SQ encompasses a range of skills and traits including communication, empathy, interpersonal skills, social awareness, leadership, and networking, but it is not limited to these.


Stoltz developed an assessment method called the "Adversity Response Profile (ARP)" to quantify the AQ. AQ consists of a model CORE (control, ownership, reach, and endurance). AQ can be trained by:
▪   See it. Acknowledge that change is needed.
▪   Own it. Take ownership of the situation.


Developing and nurturing all four quotients can lead to better academic performance, improved relationships, effective communication, emotional well-being, and ultimately transform obstacles into opportunities for achieving success in life.


▪   Solve it. Develop your action plan. 
▪   Do it. Execute the change.
Ameliorating Techniques
IQ

▪   Establish a routine for exercise.
▪   Maintain a healthy diet with plenty of vegetables.
▪   Engage in brain-stimulating activities.
▪   Practice meditation.
▪   Read regularly.
EQ
▪   Practice observing how you feel.
▪  Pay attention to your behavior and question your own opinions.
▪   Take responsibility for your feelings.
▪   Take time to celebrate the positives, and don't forget to breathe.
SQ
▪   Respect cultural differences.
▪   Pay close attention to what and who is around you.
▪   Practice active listening.
▪   Approach important people in your life.
AQ
▪  Recognize when you are telling yourself a distorted story.
▪   Reframe setbacks as opportunities for growth.
▪   Cultivate belief in your abilities.
▪   Recognize your strengths and skills.
▪   Develop strong relationships.
Way Forward for Military Leadership, Parents and Teachers
▪Be a role model by demonstrating high EQ, SQ, and AQ qualities. In your interactions with others, show empathy, self-awareness, adaptability, and strong interpersonal skills.
▪ Discuss real-life situations where emotional and social intelligence, and adaptability are crucial to success.
▪ Encourage a growth mindset while remaining cognizant that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed through controlled learning and effort.
▪ Establish mentoring programs where seniors can support juniors and promote social and emotional development.
▪ Educate your students and colleagues about the importance of developing all types of intelligence, not just IQ.
▪Integrate social and emotional learning (SEL) into your curriculum, where students learn to understand and manage emotions, develop empathy, build positive relationships, and make responsible decisions.
▪ Offer various extracurricular activities that allow students to explore their interests, develop new skills, and build relationships outside the classroom. 
▪ Engage parents in workshops and discussions on emotional intelligence and social skills so they can reinforce these values at home.
IQ, EQ, SQ, and AQ are essential pillars of human psychology. IQ contributes to cognitive abilities and problem-solving skills. EQ and SQ enhance emotional intelligence, social skills, and interpersonal effectiveness. AQ guides us through rough patches in life. Developing and nurturing all four quotients can lead to better academic performance, improved relationships, effective communication, emotional well-being, and ultimately transform obstacles into opportunities for achieving success in life.



 

Atif Mehmood

NIL

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