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Hilal Kids English

Pakistan Movement -- From Start to Culmination

March 2024

Pakistan Movement was amongst the very few strongest political and social mobilizations ever made in the contemporary history. Also known as “Independence Movement”, it was launched by the Muslims for a separate homeland. It gathered the scattered Muslims of subcontinent under one flag, and culminated in achievement of the single objective of making Allama Iqbal’s dream a reality.



    Today, Pakistan Resolution Day holds a distinguished place in history. Befittingly celebrated every year and dearly remembered as a landmark, 23rd March is cherished all over the country, with zeal and zest. 
    Let’s have a brief look at the key events revolving around the Pakistan Movement:
May 1857 – War of Independence
War of Independence is known by western historians as “Mutiny of 1857”. Both Hindu and Muslim soldiers serving in the East India Company participated in the revolt against the British Army, which they say was instigated by the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar. The revolt was overpowered by the British, which was followed by a massacre, arrests and punishments. Bahadur Shah’s two sons were killed; he himself was put in confinement in Rangoon, where he passed away on November 7, 1862.



1867 – Start of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s Efforts 
War of Independence left a feeling of alienation especially amongst Muslims who were side-lined by the British, and superseded by Hindus who best availed the opportunity of getting closer to the Raj. While Muslims boycotted, Hindus got government jobs and started English medium education. They also tried to get Urdu replaced by Hindi. Sir Syed feared a bleak future of Muslims. He initiated a nationwide campaign urging Muslims to adopt to the new reality. He founded Aligharh University, wrote books, issued journals and launched awareness campaigns. His role is considered as the foundation stone of Pakistan Movement.
-    December 26, 1870: Sir Syed established a society for educating Muslims at Banaras.
-    May 25, 1875: He opened Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, which in 1921 was upgraded to the status of Muslim University. 
-    December 28, 1885: Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress was founded, which had least to do with the rights and concerns of Muslims.
-    1887-1898: Sir Syed was an avid believer that Muslims needed their own representative party. He played a crucial role in educating them, and promoting the one-nation theory. He died on March 27, 1898.



October 1, 1906 – Simla Deputation
“Simla Deputation” was a gathering of 35 prominent Muslim leaders led by Aga Khan-III. After Bengal’s partition on October 16, 1905, Muslims had become cautious of their political rights. So they met Lord Minto at Simla on October 1, 1906, and conveyed their concerns. This proved to be a breakthrough in Muslim politics, ahead of elections.
December 27, 1906 – Jinnah’s Entry into Politics
Barrister Mohammad Ali Jinnah entered politics by participating in the 1906 session of Indian National Congress held at Calcutta. He raised voice for the rights of Muslims, which resulted in the passing of a resolution aimed at benefiting the deprived Muslims.  
December 30, 1906 – Founding of All India Muslim League
Muslims soon realized that Congress was representing Hindus only. So, on Nawab Salimullah’s key initiative, they founded their own political party called “All India Muslim League”. The party became functional all over the subcontinent.
February-August 1909 – Right of Separate Representation  
Despite being a Congress member, Jinnah in a letter to Times of India, written on February 20, 1909, supported the Muslim cause and right of separate representation. Later in August, he demanded separate electorates for the Muslims at the central and provisional legislative assemblies.
March 5, 1913 – Wakf  Validating Bill
Because of Jinnah’s efforts, the Imperial Legislative Council passed the Wakf Validating Bill after a two-year-long discussion, which was a big accomplishment.
October 10, 1913 – Jinnah Joined AIML
Jinnah formally joined All India Muslim League; his membership was testified by Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and Syed Wazir Hassan.



December 26-28, 1913 
Mohammad Ali Jinnah convinced the Hindu leaders to agree upon Muslim League’s demand of self-government, at the Indian National Congress’ session held at Karachi.  
December 30-31 – Lucknow Pact
Jinnah presided over the 9th session of Muslim League held at Lucknow. Committees formed by Muslim League and Congress agreed upon “a complete self-government in India”. This agreement was named as Lucknow Pact.
1919-1922 – Khilafat Movement
After WW-I, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali led the historic Khilafat Movement. It was the first strongest countrywide movement to safeguard the Muslim ideology, and their political rights. Jauhar was arrested during the agitation, and was released in 1923.
December 30-31, 1924 – Revival of AIML
Jinnah presided over the 16th session of AIML at Bombay. It was attended by a majority of Muslim leaders, including Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar. The session was aimed at revival of All India Muslim League.
November 1927 – Simon Commission
Under the supervision of Sir John Simon, the British government formed the Simon Commission to find out loopholes in the Indian Constitution. Congress boycotted.
March 28, 1929 – Jinnah’s 14 Points
In response to Nehru’s Report, Jinnah presented his famous “14 Points”. The council of AIML happily accepted the set of proposals aimed at protecting the political and social rights of Indian Muslims. 
29-30 December, 1930 – Allahabad Muslim League Annual Session
In 1930, Allama Muhammad Iqbal delivered his famous presidential address at Allahabad’s Convention, which is known as the first document that not only clearly defined the Two-Nation Theory, but also drew the future map of a separate homeland.



1930 to 1932 – Round Table Conferences    The three Round Table Conferences were a series of peace conferences organized by the British government to discuss constitutional reforms in India. These started in November 1930 and ended in December 1932. The first was held on November 12, 1930 in London. Jinnah did not participate in the 2nd Round Table Conference. The 3rd round was held on November 17, 1932 attended by all parties, except Congress. These conferences failed because Hindus demanded a powerful central government, whereas Muslims claimed majority in Punjab and Bengal, which Hindus rejected.
January 1933 – Now or Never
In a pamphlet titled “Now or Never” issued by Choudhry Rehmat Ali, who was then a Cambridge student, he used word “Pakistan” for the first time. He defined the name of new country PAKISTAN as P for Punjab, A for Afghana (i.e. NWFP), K for Kashmir, S for Sindh, and TAN for Balochistan. 
December 7, 1933 – Allama Iqbal’s Press Statement
Allama Muhammad Iqbal’s statement was published in newspapers. It was about if Gandhi and Nehru did not accept Muslims majority, then the subcontinent was bound to be restructured on basis of religious, cultural and historical similarities, so to solve the question of electorates and communal issues.
1938 – Allama Iqbal’s Demise
Allama Iqbal passed away in 1938 and was buried in Lahore. It was him who gave Muslims a clear direction, and consciousness through his revolutionary poetry. 
1939 – Day of Deliverance    
Muslim League observed Day of Deliverance on December 22, 1939 when Congress members part of central and provincial governments resigned. Their anti-Muslim bias was clear despite out of 11 provinces, 5 provinces claimed Muslim majority. 
March 22-24, 1940 – Pakistan Resolution
Mohammad Ali Jinnah presided over the 27th session of All India Muslim League held at Lahore. The historic “Pakistan Resolution”, also known as “Lahore Resolution” was presented by Maulvi Abul Kasim and Fazlul Haq. The resolution clearly demanded that Muslim majority areas in north-west and east of India must be aligned to establish independent states with autonomous and self-governing constituent units. Jinnah delivered his presidential address.
January-April 1946 – Victory in Elections
In different provinces, elections to 11 provincial assemblies were held; 491 seats were reserved for Muslims. Out of 491, 429 seats were won by Muslim League candidates leading to about 90% victory. Thus it was proven that 90% of Indian Muslims were fully in favour of a separate homeland.
November 14, 1946 – Bihar Tragedy 
On a large scale, innocent Muslims in Bihar were slayed by Hindu extremists causing widespread anger among Muslims. Jinnah warned that Congress ministers were directly involved in the incident; he asked Muslims to stay determined for the demand of Pakistan.
August 7-11, 1947 – Quaid-i-Azam’s Address
On August 7, the Quaid’s plane landed at Maripur Airport Karachi. He was welcomed by a large crowd with slogans “Pakistan Zindabad”. On August 10, the inaugural session of Pakistan Constituent Assembly was held. On August 11, the Quaid delivered the presidential address to the Constituent Assembly, and gave the future vision of Pakistan as a state. It was one of the most consequential pronouncements in the history of South Asia. “You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State … you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State.”
August 14, 1947 – Creation of Pakistan 
After the transfer of power ceremony in Karachi, Pakistan was created from Muslim states of East and West. The Quaid went to the balcony of Government House and smiled for a few moments at the cheering crowd. His matchless visionary leadership, and the untiring efforts of those who gathered under him, finally succeeded in earning an independent Muslim state for themselves, as well as the future generations.

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