August Special

Struggle for Pakistan: A Chronological Timeline (1857-1947) Part-V

March 21, 1937
In order to review the performance of AIML in the recent elections, a meeting of AIML Council was held. Expressing his view, Jinnah noted that the difference between the performance of Muslim majority provinces and Hindu majority provinces was “because of the differences between their cultures”. Jinnah also emphasized that “Muslims must unite as a nation, and then live or die as a united nation”.

April 1937
As Congress started dictating the British Government after the recent elections, Nehru demanded that the British Governors not use their power of veto against the resolutions or bills passed by the Congress ministries or their legislature. In order to counter this claim of Congress, the British Government asked the winning parties in Muslim majority provinces to form their ministries. Accordingly, the ministries in Punjab, Bengal, Assam, Sindh and NWFP were formed. 

July 1937
Congress ministries in six Hindu majority provinces – UP, CP, Bihar, Orissa, Bombay, and Berar – were installed. With this the Congress started their propaganda against the AIML and Jinnah by leveling false charges so as to mislead the Muslim masses. Responding to these charges, Jinnah, in a statement to the press, warned Pandit Nehru and the Congress leaders to desist from this effort of “vilifying” and “misrepresenting” the Muslim demands and the stand taken by AIML. Jinnah also decided to sponsor certain Muslim journals and newspapers so that the Muslim cause could be popularized.

October 15-18, 1937
25th session of the AIML was held at Lalbagh, Lucknow which was presided over by Jinnah. Raja of Mahmudabad, who was Chairman of the Reception Committee, made arrangements for this session from his own pocket. This session was particularly significant given the participation of Chief Ministers of all the Muslim majority provinces including, A.K. Fazlul Haq, Premier of Bengal, Sir Sikander Hayat Khan, Premier of Punjab, Sir Saadullah Khan, Premier of Assam, and Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah, Premier of Sindh. The Congress Raj in six Hindu majority provinces was termed by the Congress leaders themselves as the “Hindu Raj”, a matter which alarmed the Muslim leaders of all the provinces whether they belonged to the AIML or other parties. Even Sir Sikander Hayat Khan, Chief Minister of Punjab, belonging to the Unionist Party felt challenged by the Congress’ threat.  In his speech, Jinnah made it clear that Congress had lost the support from Muslim masses all over the country. Jinnah also urged upon the Muslims to “equip yourselves as trained and disciplined soldiers. Create the feeling of esprit de corps, and of comradeship among yourselves”. In this way, he believed, the 80 million Muslims need not fear anything because they will ultimately succeed. 
The Congress leaders were perturbed by the success of this session and unity of the Muslim leaders belonging to all parties. Gandhi wrote a letter to Jinnah on October 19, 1937 in which he blamed that by his presidential speech Jinnah had made “a declaration of war”. Replying to this, Jinnah wrote to Gandhi what he said at Lucknow was “purely self-defence”. In this way a long correspondence continued between Jinnah and Gandhi, followed by Nehru-Jinnah correspondence, and then by a prolonged Bose-Jinnah correspondence. Jinnah befittingly replied to all of them and pleaded the cause of Muslim nation towards a destination.

July 1937-Novmber 1939
In July 1937 Congress ministries in six Hindu majority provinces were installed. The Congress ministries resigned as a protest against the British joining the Second World War (1939-1945). The Congress wanted Britain to join the War on the Congress’ terms which the British refused to accept. Jinnah and the AIML termed this Congress Raj as the “Hindu Raj” because these governments functioned against the very existence of the Muslims in their provinces which meant elimination of Muslim culture and civilization. Jinnah’s view was substantiated by the Pirpur Enquiry Report and Sharif Enquiry Report.

December 22, 1939
On a call by Jinnah and the AIML, the Muslims and other minorities celebrated this day as Day of Deliverance from the Congress Raj in the six Hindu majority provinces which was termed as the Hindu Raj. There were 11 total provinces in British India. Five provinces were Muslim majority provinces, but Balochistan was not given the status of a province.  In this celebration not only Muslims from all over India participated but other minorities including Scheduled Caste Hindus, Sikhs, and Christians fully sided with the Muslims. Thus an anti-Congress wave took over British India in the political sense which the British rulers could not ignore. Thus by this demonstration Jinnah’s status became equal to that of Gandhi and the Congress leaders. Consequently, in the political future of British India, the British Government could not do anything by ignoring Jinnah’s demand for Pakistan and the good future of Muslims, especially during the Second World War. Jinnah’s support became all the more necessary for another reason that half of the British Indian Army consisted of Muslim soldiers who considered Jinnah as their “Quaid-i-Azam”, i.e., the Greatest Leader.

March 22-24, 1940
27th session of AIML was held at Lahore which was presided over by Quaid-i-Azam amongst great hopes and aspirations by Muslims all over the Indo-Pak subcontinent. In this session more than one lac Muslims from all over the subcontinent participated. Jinnah delivered his long presidential address on March 22. On March 23 the famous “Pakistan Resolution” was presented which was passed unanimously. Leaders from all the provinces supported this resolution. Under this resolution the provinces of Bengal, Assam, Punjab, NWFP (now KP), Sindh and Balochistan were demanded as parts of Pakistan. In this connection there were different views amongst the Congress and the British leaders, but the Viceroy Lord Linlithgow and his Cabinet considered that “Jinnah was very sincere in his demand for Pakistan”. But publically the British Government was very careful in handling the Pakistan issue because of opposition from the Congress leaders. However, Congress leaders and the Hindu press were shocked over Jinnah’s announcement of Pakistan which they opposed tooth and nail. There were some other opponents of the scheme of Pakistan, but Jinnah did not fear all this opposition because he had already organized the Muslim nation all over the subcontinent which stood behind Jinnah as a well-disciplined and united force under his leadership to achieve Pakistan under all circumstances.

March-April 1942
Sir Stafford Cripps, Leader of the House of Commons, came to India on March 22, 1942 to discuss the issue of transfer of power to Indians. This was the first serious attempt on behalf of British Government to discuss the issue of Pakistan and transfer of power to Indians. Cripps met Jinnah, Nehru and other Congress leaders. He heard Jinnah’s view on Pakistan and held discussions with other Indian leaders but ultimately published his draft proposals known as the “Cripps Proposals” in Indian newspapers on March 30. Jinnah termed these proposals as against the concept of Pakistan. The Congress also did not like the Cripps Proposals. Finally on April 12 Sir Cripps departed from British India and his mission failed.

August 1942
Upon Gandhi’s insistence the Congress demanded from the British Government to “quit India” and hand over power to the “Congress Caucus” which was calculated towards the “Hindu Brahman Raj”. A movement in this direction was started which failed because the Muslims and other minorities did not support Congress in this move. It also failed because Jinnah demanded from the British to “first divide and then quit”.

September 1944
Jinnah-Gandhi Talks were held in Bombay. In these talks a number of meetings between Jinnah and Gandhi took place at Jinnah’s House in Bombay followed by exchange of a number of letters. Gandhi tried to give the impression that he was ready to accept the idea of Pakistan, though it was unnatural division of India, but after the transfer of power from British to Congress – a plea which Jinnah felt was a dodging trick by Gandhi. Thus Jinnah refused. Jinnah wanted Pakistan before the departure of British from India. Gandhi tried to confuse Jinnah on a number of issues regarding Pakistan Resolution which Jinnah clearly explained in the interest of Muslims and Pakistan. Thus Gandhi-Jinnah Talks failed.

June-July 1945
The Second World War came to an end in Europe in May 1945. As promised by the British Government, 22 Indian leaders belonging to different parties including Jinnah, Gandhi, Nehru and others were invited to meet at Simla on June 25, 1945 for the purpose of settling the future of British India. This is known as Simla Conference which continued up til July 14, 1945 with some intervals. Quaid-i-Azam pleaded Pakistan’s case. AIML, headed by Jinnah, faced Congress leaders as equals. Pakistan issue was the single issue on which the Quaid was not ready to surrender. The Congress did not agree. On this plea, the British announced failure of the Simla Conference.

August 1945
British Government announced the holding of elections in the next winter 1945-1946.

August-November 1945
Jinnah and other AIML candidates started their election campaign, especially in the provinces which were to form Pakistan. Sindh, Balochistan and NWFP (now KP) were specially concentrated apart from the Punjab, Bengal and Assam. A number of Muslim leaders left Congress and other parties, and joined the AIML. This was a very successful election campaign. For instance, Khan Abdul Qayyum from NWFP and Mian Iftikharuddin from Punjab left Congress and joined AIML. Similarly, other desertions took place and the AIML became very popular.

November-December 1945
Elections for the members of Indian Central Assembly were held. In these elections 30 seats were reserved for the Muslims. All these seats of the Central Assembly were won by AIML candidates. Thus AIML’s victory in these elections was 100%. The candidates backed by the Congress and other parties were miserably defeated.

January-April 1946
Elections to 11 provincial assemblies were held in different provinces. 491 seats were reserved for Muslims in the provincial assemblies. Out of 491, 429 seats were won by the Muslim League candidates. Thus the Muslim League victory was about 90%. These elections proved that 90% majority of the Muslims of the Indo-Pak subcontinent were in favour of Pakistan. In the Punjab Assembly, majority of 88 members out of 175 were with the Muslim League. Of the 88 members claimed by Nawab Mamdot, leader of the Punjab Muslim League, 73 belonged to the Muslim League, plus 5 Independent and 10 others. Despite this, Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana’s Ministry was installed, although his Unionist Party was able to win only 20 seats. This was to facilitate him because of the Congress’ designs against Pakistan. As a result, agitation against Khizar started which resulted in his resignation towards the end of March 1947.

April 1, 1946
Jinnah’s interview to Norman Cliff, Foreign Editor of the News Chronicle, London, was published in the Times of India, Bombay in which Jinnah said: “I do not regard myself as an Indian. India is a State of nationalities, including two major nations, and all we claim is a distinct, sovereign State for our nation – Pakistan”. Jinnah also said: “There is no room for us to compromise on the issue of Pakistan”.2

March-August 1946
Cabinet Mission consisting of Lord Pethick-Lawrence, Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, and Mr. A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty arrived in Delhi on March 24. Soon they started meeting the Indian politicians. Initially each member met each politician separately, and later collectively. On March 30 Cripps had a meeting with Jinnah and found him “calm, reasonable but completely firm on Pakistan”. The Delegation also met the Congress leaders and others who were opposed to the idea of Pakistan. During May 5-12, the Delegation had another meeting in Simla with the Indian leaders including Jinnah, Gandhi, Nehru and others. As a result of these talks, the Cabinet Mission announced the following recommendations on May 16: 1) Government of the Union will deal with subjects of foreign affairs, defense and communications only; 2) 11 provinces of British India should be grouped together in three categories: a) Group A will consist of provinces of Madras, Bombay, UP, Bihar, CP and Orissa, b) Group B will consist of Punjab, NWFP, Sindh, and one representative from Balochistan, c) Group C shall consist of Bengal and Assam. Each of these groups will hold their separate meetings and decide their own future to the extent that if any province decided to opt out of the group, it was allowed to do so. 
This created a very critical situation for the AIML and Jinnah. A meeting of the AIML Council was called in Delhi on June 5 in which Jinnah gave an “in camera” address and asked for patience in the new scenario and called for readiness to work the Cabinet Mission’s proposals because it contained “the foundations, the basis of Pakistan”. He was fully aware that the Cabinet Mission “mutilated” facts about Pakistan. Still Jinnah believed: “So far as Pakistan is concerned let me tell you that Muslim India will not rest content until we have established full complete sovereign Pakistan”.3 The Council meeting continued to discuss Cabinet Mission Proposals for four days.
On the basis of this, the Delegation and the Viceroy contacted the Congress and the AIML Presidents to form the Interim Government. Lord Wavell, the Viceroy, proposed that in the Executive Council 5 members of the Congress, 5 members from the AIML, 2 members from the Minorities, and 3 members from others shall be included. The Congress objected to this parity between the AIML and Congress. Jinnah termed this Congress objection to what had already been agreed between him and the Congress leaders with the Congress Delegation. The Cabinet Delegation abandoned the talks for formation of Interim Government, left India on June 29 and went to London.
Maulana Azad as President of the Indian National Congress was replaced towards the end of May and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru joined as the new President of the Congress. Thus Azad whom Jinnah had rightly termed as the “showboy of the Congress” was used and shunted putting the Congress in the hands of Pandit Nehru to deal with the British Government in the new scenario for transfer of power in a more confident way. On July 8, Nehru announced in Bombay that Congress had formed the Congress Volunteer Corps to counter the Muslim League National Guards.4 This created an alarming situation because Congress was now bent upon crushing the Muslims for the purpose of keeping India united.
To ponder over this alarming situation, Jinnah convened the meeting of the AIML Council on July 29 in which it was decided to reject the Cabinet Mission Proposals and resort to Direct Action to achieve Pakistan.5

August 16, 1946
On a call by Jinnah, this day was celebrated all over British India as “Direct Action Day”. Demonstrations against the British and the Congress were carried out throughout the country. Muslims and the Hindus clashed with each other at certain places in which hundreds and thousands of Muslims and Hindus were killed or injured. This forced the Congress leadership and the British Government to come to terms with Jinnah.

August 24, 1946
The Viceroy sided with the Congress leadership and announced the formation of a 12 member Interim Government headed by Pandit Nehru. This included 5 Hindus, 3 Muslims, one representatives each from the scheduled castes, Christians, Sikhs and Parsis. Jinnah termed this as a breach of contract made at Simla and termed it as a “blow to Muslim India”.6 Jinnah also warned the Government that the Muslim League would soon start “grim struggle” to achieve Pakistan.7 Accordingly, Jinnah started organizing the Muslim League National Guards and appealed to the Khaksars to join them in their struggle against the Government.

September 16, 1946
Forced by the circumstances and on instructions from the British Prime Minister, the Viceroy met Jinnah and asked him to join the Interim Government. As a follow up of this meeting Jinnah laid down certain conditions for joining the Interim Government with the approval of the Muslim League Working Committee and the Committee of Action.

October 26, 1946
After a prolonged discussion and dialogue between Jinnah and the Viceroy in which Nehru and Gandhi were also taken into confidence by the Viceroy, Jinnah’s terms for joining the Interim Government were accepted by all the parties and the following 5 Muslim League nominees joined the Interim Government: 1) Liaquat Ali Khan – Finance, 2) I. I. Chundrigar – Commerce, 3) Abdur Rab Nishtar – Port and Air, 4) J. N. Mandal – Legislative, and 5) Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan – Health.8 The most important point   proposed by Jinnah to which the Viceroy agreed was that “the joining of the Government will not mean that the League has surrendered its goal of Pakistan”.9 In this way Muslim League joined the Interim Government with commitment to Pakistan as their goal. In this connection H. V. Hodson writes: “By this exchange, therefore, Mr. Jinnah had scored a very important tactical advantage”.10

November 1946
The Muslims in Bihar province were killed on a large scale by the anti-Muslim Hindu gangsters in which certain Congress Ministers of the Interim Government were also involved. This created a great wave of anger in the Muslim majority areas. On November 14 Jinnah warned these Congress Ministers not to do so and at the same time issued an appeal to the Muslims of the majority Muslim areas to remain calm and not to be misled by the Hindu leaders’ provocations so that “our demand for Pakistan” is not hampered.11

December 1946
Jinnah demanded that existing Central Legislative Assembly should be divided into two Constituent Assemblies – one of Hindustan and the other for Pakistan. Nehru did not agree to this demand. But the tension in the Muslim majority was increasing. In order to solve this problem the British Prime Minister decided to invite the Indian leaders to London. Consequently Lord Wavell, the Viceroy, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Liaquat Ali Khan, M. A. Jinnah and Sardar Baldev Singh proceeded to London on December 1, 1946. A number of meetings between these leaders and the Prime Minister Attlee were held and a final agreement was reached between them on December 6. By this agreement both the parties accepted that any decision regarding the One or Two Constituent Assemblies will be imposed unless and until both parties come to an agreement. Nehru returned on December 7, but Jinnah remained in London until December 15. In an interview to BBC London Jinnah made it clear that India should be divided into Hindustan and Pakistan because “we differ in our history, culture, language, architecture, music, law, jurisprudence, calendar and our entire social fabric and code of life”.12 In another interview on the eve of his departure from London, Jinnah made it clear that the Muslim members will not participate in the existing Legislative Assembly unless their separate Assembly is created.

January-March 1947
Despite the Muslim League majority with 80% votes, the Punjab Governor installed Sir Khizar Hayat Khan’s Ministry in Punjab with the support of non-Muslim members in March 1946. When Quaid-i-Azam and the Muslim League decided to start Civil Disobedience Movement, the anti-Khizar Movement started in January 1947. The prolonged protests and demonstrations took place in almost all the cities of Punjab against the Khizar Ministry. This created a very alarming situation for the Government because Punjab was considered by the British as the basis of their power which was shaken by these demonstrations. Ultimately Khizar was forced to resign on March 2, 1947. This was because of the pressure of thousands of the Muslim League protestors put in jail by the Khizar Ministry. They were all released in order to bring the situation to normalcy after March 2, 1947.

February 20, 1947
Seeing Jinnah’s intentions that he is ready to go to any extent for the creation of Pakistan, British Prime Minister Mr. Clement Attlee announced in the House of Commons that the British will leave India by June 1948 by transferring power to the Indian hands.13

February 20-June 4, 1947
In NWFP (now KP) Assembly there were 38 seats of the Muslim members of the Assembly. Of these 19 were secured by the Congress members, 17 by the Muslim League members, and 2 seats went to the members of Jamiat-ul-Ulama-i-Hind. Thus majority seats were won by the members of the Congress and the Muslim League, but the majority of the Muslim votes went to the members of Muslim League as a whole because Muslim League secured 147,380 or about 45% votes, but the Congress secured 130,975 or 39% of the votes. Thus majority of the voters were in favour of the Muslim League which was further confirmed later in the referendum held in July 1947. Because of this majority of the Muslim votes, the Muslim League decided to stage anti-Khan Sahib Civil Disobedience Movement on February 20, 1947 which paralyzed the Khan government. It was as a result of June 3, 1947 Partition Plan and on call of Lord Mountbatten, the Viceroy, that Jinnah called off the anti-Khan Sahib movement and waited for the referendum.

March 22, 1947
Lord Mountbatten replaced Lord Wavell as the new Viceroy of British India with Congress’ blessings. With Gandhi’s and Nehru’s backing Mountbatten first tried “to work for Unitary Government for India on the basis of the Cabinet Mission Plan”, but failed to do so. It was because of organized Muslim pressure led by Jinnah that Mountbatten came to be favorable to the idea of Partition of India. Marathon dialogues and meetings took place before settling the partition scheme.

April 9, 1947
In a meeting at the Delhi Viceroy’s house, Lord Mountbatten offered Jinnah to become Prime Minister of united India and leave the Pakistan demand. Jinnah not only refused this offer but showed his determination to get “full Pakistan” consisting of full six provinces of the Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, NWFP (now KP), Bengal and Assam with its separate armed forces.

April 15, 1947
A meeting of all the Governors of the provinces was held at Delhi in which Mountbatten’s talks with Gandhi, Nehru, Jinnah and other Indian leaders was discussed. Because of fear of civil war, particularly in the Punjab, NWFP, and Bihar with the danger to spread to other provinces and Jinnah’s pressure for Pakistan duly backed by united Muslim public opinion all over the country, it was ultimately decided that the Indo-Pak subcontinent should be divided into two countries: Hindustan and Pakistan. Thus the later dialogues with Indian leaders were focused on how to divide the country and carve out two new dominions. Congress leaders gave a tough time to settle the partition issues, but Jinnah continued to pursue his goal of Pakistan.

June 3, 1947
With the consent of Indian leaders including Jinnah, Gandhi and Nehru, and approved by the British Prime Minister, Lord Mountbatten announced the Partition Plan which is also known as the Mountbatten Plan. According to this Plan, India was to be divided into two parts – Hindustan and Pakistan – each having its own Constituent Assembly. Bengal and the Punjab were to be divided into Hindu majority and Muslim majority areas. Muslim majority parts were to be included into Pakistan. Respective provincial assemblies were to decide accordingly. Referendum was to be held in NWFP (now KP) and Sylhet (Assam). Balochistan Municipality was to decide about Balochistan. Armed forces were to be divided but the Common Command of General Auchinleck was to continue at Delhi for one year.

June 5, 1947
In order to implement the Partition Plan, a Partition Council headed by Lord Mountbatten was created. Jinnah, Nehru, Liaquat Ali Khan and Vallabhbhai Patel were to be its members. Any other person could also be co-opted with the proceedings of the Partition Council. On Quaid-i-Azam’s pleading, it was also decided that the Interim Government will not interfere into the business of the Partition Council.

June 20, 1947
Bengal Assembly members met in two groups. One group represented non-Muslim majority areas of the Bengal under the presidency of Maharaja of Burdwan. This group decided by a vote of 58 to 21 that non-Muslim majority areas of Bengal should join Hindustan Constituent Assembly. The other group of Bengal Assembly members headed by Nurul Amin decided by a vote of 107 to 34 that they would join the Pakistan Constituent Assembly with Dhaka as the provincial capital of Eastern Bengal.

June 23, 1947
The Punjab Assembly as a whole held its meeting at Lahore presided over by Dewan Bahadur S. P. Singha, the Speaker. 91 Members of the Assembly voted for the Pakistan Constituent Assembly, while 77 members voted for the Hindustan Constituent Assembly. Thus the majority went for non-division of Punjab province. But the decision had to be taken in the light of Mountbatten Plan. Accordingly, the members met in two separate meetings – one in Western Punjab and the other in Eastern Punjab. In a meeting, Western Punjab Assembly decided by 69 votes to 27 under the presidency of Dewan Bahadur S. P. Singha to join the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. Eastern Punjab Assembly in a separate meeting presided over by Sardar Kapur Singh decided to join the Hindustan Constituent Assembly by 50 votes to 22.

June 26, 1947
Sindh Legislative Assembly held its meeting in Karachi and decided to join Pakistan by a majority vote of 33 members.

June 27, 1947
At the Partition Council meeting presided over by the Viceroy in which Quaid-i-Azam also participated, it was decided that headquarters of the Pakistan Army will be established in Rawalpindi and the headquarters of the Indian Army will be in Delhi. However, the Supreme Commander of both the armies will continue to function in Delhi for another year.

June 29, 1947
A joint session of the Shahi Jirga and the elected members of the Quetta Municipality, as required under the Mountbatten Plan, met in Quetta under the presidency of Nawab Mohammad Khan Jogezai and unanimously decided to join Pakistan. 54 members unanimously decided to join the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. However, 8 non-Muslim members were absent.

July 6-7, 1947
The Sylhet Referendum was held as part of the Mountbatten Plan in which 239,619 votes were cast in favor of joining Eastern Bengal, while 184,041 for remaining in Assam. Thus with a clear-cut majority the Sylhet district of Assam province joined Eastern Bengal province of Pakistan.

July 8, 1947
On Jinnah’s recommendation, the Viceroy agreed to declare Karachi as the capital of Pakistan.

July 11, 1947
The Partition Council presided over by the Viceroy participated by Jinnah and Liaquat, finally decided to divide the assets of the Army, Navy, and Air Force between India and Pakistan.

July 15, 1947
On Quaid-i-Azam’s urgings, the Viceroy agreed to the present shape of the flag of Pakistan.

July 7-20, 1947
The result of NWFP (now KP) was declared on July 20 by which about 51% of the voters voted. Of this 286,370 votes were cast for Pakistan and 2874 votes for united India. Thus 99% voted for Pakistan. In this way the people of NWFP decided to join Pakistan. Before the referendum Dr. Khan Sahib, the Chief Minister had promised to resign, but after the Referendum he did not honour his commitment. But after creation of Pakistan, his Ministry was dismissed by the Governor of NWFP.

August 10, 1947
First meeting of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly was held in Karachi in which the members signed their presence.

August 11, 1947
Quaid-i-Azam was elected as the first President of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. Thus he delivered his first speech in the Pakistan Constituent Assembly.

August 13, 1947
Lord and Lady Mountbatten arrived in Karachi and presided over the first Provisional Pakistan Cabinet at the Government House, Karachi.

August 14, 1947
At the transfer of power ceremony held at the Pakistan Constituent Assembly, Mountbatten transferred power to Pakistan on behalf of the British Crown. Thus Pakistan became an independent country under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah.

The writer is Ex-Director, National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, and Professor at Quaid-i-Azam Chair (NIPS), Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad.
E-mail: [email protected]

1. Ibid., p. 59, quotes from the Proceedings of the Council Meeting of AIML, 21 March 1937, in AIML Papers, Vol. 222, National Archives of Pakistan, Islamabad.
2. 1946, April 1. Times of India.
3. 1946, June 6. Times of India.
4. Indian Annual Register, Vol. II, p. 4.
5. 1946, July 30. Times of India.
6. 1946, August 27. Times of India.
7. 1946, 28 October. Times of India.
8. 1946, October 28. Times of India.
9. 1946, October 14. Times of India.
10. H. V. Hodson, The Great Divide: Britain, India-Pakistan, London, H. and 11. Company Ltd., 1970, p.169.
11. 1946, November 15. Times of India.
12. Z. H. Zaidi, Jinnah Papers, Vol. XIV, p.737.
13. 1947, February 21. Times of India.


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