Struggle for Pakistan A Chronological Timeline (1857-1947) Part-III

August 1925-April 1926 
The Indian Sandhurst Committee visited various prominent educational institutions all over British India and interviewed various personalities all over the country. Jinnah put forth probing questions which directed people to answer in favor of grant of commission to the Indians in the Army. The Committee also appointed a three member Sub-committee headed by Jinnah. Two other members were: Sir Phiroze Sethna and Zorawar Singh, who were also members of the Indian Central Legislative Assembly. This Sub-committee was given the task of visiting the military institutions of UK, France, U.S. and Canada.
May-August 1926
The Indian Sandhurst Sub-committee headed by Jinnah visited the military institutions of UK, France, U.S. and Canada and finalized their report on August 9, 1926. This Sub-committee report was written by Jinnah himself which the other members endorsed. Wherever the Sub-Committee went, Jinnah was vocal enough to enquire into the pinching matters which the British rulers were not happy to note and were rather perturbed. In July 1926, Lord Birkenhead, Secretary of State for India, complained to Lord Irwin, the Viceroy: “Jinnah’s conduct over here has been disgraceful, and the other two members of the Committee showed little sign of dissociating themselves from him. I believe that their behavior in Canada was little better, and that they devoted themselves mainly to gathering opinions as to the probability of Canada seceding from the Empire. The Sub-committee has done much harm, and I am sure it was a grave error to let them loose without Skeen to control them. I had originally intended to get them to meet in Worthington Evans and C.I.G.S. at my house, but Jinnah had made it impossible for me to show them hospitality. I shall not see him unless he requests an interview. If he does, I shall talk to him very plainly.”1  Actually, during his tour of these countries Jinnah had issued press statements which were not liked by the British rulers.
August 13, 1926
On his arrival in Bombay, Jinnah issued a press statement in which he said: “We saw various institutions in France, England, Canada and America. The system, no doubt, was different in each country. You cannot take any single system en bloc and apply it to India having regard to the circumstances of this country. Therefore, you will have to consider what particular elements in each system would suit Indian conditions and probably it will ultimately be a combined system in its main features. Whatever system India may adopt ultimately its success will greatly depend upon enlisting the cooperation of the educational authorities in India”.
November 1926
Jinnah was elected member of the Indian Central Legislative Assembly. In this election there were two other contestants against Jinnah. On the election day, seeing the poor return of voters from Bombay, the two other candidates announced their withdrawal from the contest. Jinnah won with overwhelming majority. His opponents were: Hassenbhai A. Lalji supported by Swarajya Party and Salehbhoy K. Barodawala, Sheriff of Bombay as an independent. Jinnah secured 2700 votes against 700 secured by his opponents.2 
April 26, 1927
Jinnah addressed a public meeting in Bombay arranged by Servants of India Society in which he lamented that the Indian Sandhurst Committee Report has not been published and clarified: “So long as India was unable to defend herself, no Swaraj would come to her either from outside or from within”. Despite such complaints on the part of Jinnah and other members of Indian Central Legislative Assembly, the British Government avoided implementation of the Indian Sandhurst Committee Report. It was in 1932 that the Indian Military Academy was established in India.
August 10, 1928
The All Parties Congress Committee popularly known as the Nehru Committee published its report. The Committee was chaired by Motilal Nehru with his son Jawaharlal Nehru as the Secretary. This Committee rejected the separate electorate for Muslims and other smaller communities. All the Muslim demands made by Jinnah under the Delhi Muslim Proposals of March 1927 were ignored. The tone of Hindu Raj was visible in the language and tenor of the Report. This opened the eyes of different sections of the Muslims, especially those living in the Muslim majority provinces. All sections of Muslim population felt threatened by the Nehru Report. Majority of the Muslim leaders belonging to different parties felt alarmed by the tone of the Nehru Report regarding Muslims. The Muslim India as a whole rose in revolt against this Report.
March 28, 1929
Jinnah presented his Fourteen Points before the AIML Council in which he made it clear that: 1) Muslim representation in the Central Legislative cannot be less than one-third and that was to be based on separate electorates; 2) Muslim majority provinces – Bengal, NWFP, Punjab and Balochistan – will not be disturbed at any cost; 3) Sindh should be separated from Bombay; 4)  Constitutional guarantees are required for the adequate safeguards of the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws, and Muslim charitable institutions; 5) Full religious liberty, i.e., liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education shall be guaranteed to all communities.
June 19, 1929
Jinnah wrote a letter to the newly elected British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald pleading that the Simon Commission’s report, due to be submitted to the British Government, should not be taken as a true reflection of the Indian opinion. Therefore, Jinnah suggested to the Prime Minister that the Indian politicians of different sections should be invited to discuss with them the final draft of the constitutional bill reflecting the true Indian opinion covering different sections of the Indian society.
October 31, 1929
On the direction of British Prime Minister, the Viceroy of India Lord Irwin announced the holding of Round Table Conference (RTC) in London in the next year for final settlement of Indian constitutional issues.
December 30-31, 1929
Indian National Congress approved the starting of Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) by which the British Indian Government was to be forced to hand over power to them ignoring the Muslims and other communities. This made the Muslim leaders of all sections further alert of the Congress’ designs.
January 31, 1930
In a meeting with a group of Hindu leaders led by Dr. Tej Bahadur Sapru, Jinnah made it clear that from now on the AIML will not compromise with the Congress and other parties with nothing short of the Fourteen Points already presented by him. Jinnah also termed the Nehru Report signaling the parting of ways.
February 3, 1930
AIML Council was held under the chairmanship of Jinnah which called upon the British Indian Government not to be cowed down by the Congress’ threat or that of its Civil Disobedience Movement. It further called upon the Government to hold the RTC as early as possible.
February 28, 1930
Jinnah’s efforts for uniting the two factions of the AIML – Jinnah group and Shafi group – culminated and AIML Council meeting was held in Delhi presided over by Jinnah. Shafi also participated. Over fifty Muslim leaders from different parts of the country participated in this meeting. Finally, it was announced that the two groups of AIML were united under Jinnah’s leadership and Jinnah’s Fourteen Points would now be the goal of AIML.
April 22, 1930
Maulana Mahomed Ali Jauhar addressed a public meeting in Bombay in which most of the Muslim leaders belonging to all segments of Muslims participated. In his address Maulana Jauhar denounced Gandhi’s Civil Disobedience Movement because he believed that Gandhi’s real objective was “to establish Hindu Raj”. 
May 1930
The Viceroy of India announced the schedule of Round Table Conference to be held in London in October 1930 to which various segments of leaders were to be invited, including Jinnah.
September 8, 1930
The Viceroy of India announced the schedule of Round Table Conference to be held in London in October 1930 to which various segments of leaders were to be invited, including Jinnah.
September 8, 1930
In a press interview published in the newspapers, Jinnah warned the Congress leaders that they are committing a “grave mistake” by launching the Civil Disobedience Movement and that they have “failed” to understand the “present condition of India”.3 
October 2, 1930
On the eve of his departure to London from Karachi, Jinnah made it clear that there were four principal parties in India: 1) British Government, 2) Indian States, 3) Hindus, and 4) Muslims. He made it clear that unless these four principal parties do not agree on a unanimous programme the RTC is bound to fail.
October 1930
Jinnah was elected Member of Indian Central Legislative Assembly unopposed in the first week of October.
October 25, 1930
A meeting of all the members of Central and Provincial Legislatures was held in Lucknow which was presided over by Raja of Salempur, leading taluqdar of Oudh. Jinnah could not participate in this meeting because he had already left for London to participate in the RTC. However, all the leaders unanimously agreed that a united policy on the lines suggested by Jinnah’s Fourteen Points will be pursued at the RTC in London.
December 29, 1930
As planned by the AIML Council presided over by Jinnah, Allama Iqbal delivered his presidential address at the Allahabad Session of the AIML in which Iqbal demanded: “I would like to see the Punjab, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Sindh and Balochistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the North-West India”.4
Towards the end of his address Iqbal also said: “We have a duty towards India where we are destined to live and die. We have a duty towards Asia, especially Muslim Asia. And since seventy million Muslims in a single country constitute a far more valuable asset to Islam than all the countries of Muslim Asia put together, we must look at the Indian problem, not only from the Muslim point of view, but also from the standpoint of the Indian Muslim as such. Our duty towards Asia and India cannot be loyally performed without an organized will fixed on a definite purpose… And an independent line of political action, in such a crisis, is possible only to a determined people, possessing a will focalized by a single purpose”.5
November 12, 1930-January 19, 1931
The first Round Table Conference was held in London opened by King George V. Jinnah and other political leaders of British India participated. The Plenary Session was presided over by Ramsay MacDonald, the British Prime Minister. Important Indian leaders including Jinnah also addressed the Plenary Session. Thereafter the delegates were split into various committees and sub-committees. Jinnah was member of a number of such committees such as the Federal Structure Sub-committee, Minorities Sub-Committee, Defence Sub-committee, and the Sub-Committee on the Separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency. The reports of these committees were to go to the committee of the whole conference of which Jinnah was also a member. Jinnah spoke for the rights of Muslims and for the separation of Sindh from the Bombay Presidency.
February 4, 1931
Jinnah gave interview to Reuters in London in which he announced his decision that he has decided to remain in England “indefinitely” so that he could “fight India’s battle in England” for the future of the Muslims. For this reason he had even decided to contest the coming elections for the Parliament from London.6 
March 30, 1931    
Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, M. A. Khuhro, Mir Mohamed Allabux, Mir Mohamed Baloch, Haji Abdullah Hassan and 20 other leaders from Sindh and Balochistan issued a joint press statement in London by which they urged upon the British Government to accept Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.7 
April 5-6, 1931
All India Muslim Conference was held in Delhi to which Gandhi was also invited. At this conference, Maulana Shaukat Ali urged Gandhi to accept Jinnah’s Fourteen Points. When Gandhi opposed this idea, Maulana Shaukat Ali warned Gandhi to “leave Muslims alone”.8
July 31, 1931
Jinnah came to Bombay on a short visit. In his interview to the Times of India, he announced that he had come to India to resign from his membership of the Indian Central Legislative Assembly so that during his absence the electorate could elect a new member in his place. In this interview he also made it clear that there was major disagreement between the Hindu and Muslim leaders in the RTC and that unless the disagreement between the two nations – Hindus and Muslims – was resolved, there would be no constitutional agreement amongst the Indians.9
September 4, 1931
On the eve of his departure Jinnah was given a big farewell by the Muslim Students Union in Bombay. During his speech, Jinnah made it clear: “What is a State? Does it mean that the seventy million Muslims should be tied hand and foot in a constitution where a particular class of Hindu can possibly tyrannize over and deal with them as they like? Is that representative government? Is that democratic government?  Certainly not?”10
September 5, 1931
On Rampur Ship, Jinnah, Allama Iqbal, Shafi Dawoodi, Secretary of All Parties Muslim Conference and other leaders sailed for England to participate in the London Round Table Conferences.
September 7-December 1, 1931
Second Round Table Conference was held in London. Jinnah and other political leaders including Allama Mohammad Iqbal participated. Mahatma Gandhi also participated in this conference. During the 2nd RTC, the Muslim delegation jointly framed their strategy and elected Jinnah as their leader. In his speech at the Federal Structure Committee which was presided over by the British Prime Minister, Jinnah made it clear that “until and unless the Muslim demands and the safeguards are incorporated in the constitution it will not be acceptable to us [Muslims]”.11  Sir Muhammad Shafi, who followed Jinnah to express his view, supported Jinnah’s stance, saying: “Muslim interests of the eighty millions of His Majesty’s subjects must be safeguarded, those safeguards must be included in the constitution”.12 Dr. Ambedkar who was the leader of 50 million untouchables of British India also supported the Muslim demands. Gandhi, disliked this behavior of Dr. Ambedkar.13 He tried to create division between Jinnah and Ambedkar but failed.14  Jinnah’s Fourteen Points had already been presented to Lord Sankey, Chairman of this Committee, by Jinnah himself. In the meeting of this Committee on November 26, 1931 Jinnah made it clear that no constitution “will work for 24 hours” in India if it fails to meet the Muslim demands.15  Jinnah’s bold stance at the RTC was “disliked” by the British Government but, as a matter of fact, continued to cause fear in the government circles.16
September 1931
Jinnah purchased his West Heath House in Hampstead, London. Built in the style of 1880’s, the three-storied villa had many rooms and gables, a lodge, a drive, and eight acres of garden and pasture.
October 29, 1931
All the Muslim delegates to the RTC met in London and decided to authorize Jinnah, Sir Aga Khan, Sir Muhammad Shafi, Maulana Shaukat Ali and Ghuznavi to evolve a common formula for the security and protection of the interests of the minorities, including the Muslims, in consultation with Sir Herbert Carr, Col Gidney, Dr. Ambedkar – a leader of the untouchables – and Pannir Selvan.17

The writer is Ex-Director, National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, and Professor at Quaid-i-Azam Chair (NIPS), Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad.
E-mail: [email protected]

1Birkenhead to Irwin, 15 July 1926, Halifax Papers, MSS, Eur. C. 152/2.  Ibid., pp. 23-24.
2 Ibid., pp. 23-24.
31930, September 8. Times of India.
4S.S.Pirzada. (2007). Foundations of Pakistan: All India Muslim League Documents 1906-1947, Vol. II. Islamabad: NIHCR, Quaid-i-Azam University. P. 135-136
5Ibid., P. 147.
61931, February 6. Times of India.
71931, April 1. Times of India.
81931, April 6-7. Times of India.
91931, August 1. Times of India.
101931, September 5. Times of India.
11Ibid., P. 146.
12Ibid., P. 147.
13Ibid., P. 148-149.
15Indian Round Table Conference, 12th November 1930-19th January 1931: Proceedings of Sub-Committee, Vol. I, P. 276-333.
16Hoare to Willingdon, 5 April 1934, Templewood Papers, MSS. Eur. E. 240/4, British Library, OIOC, London.
17 1931, October 31. Times of India.


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